Early proposal for the partition of British India
December 11, 1941: Germany and Italy Declare War on the U.S.
On this day in 1941, Nazi Germany’s Adolf Hitler and Fascist Italy’s Benito Mussolini declared war on the United States in support of their ally, Empire of Japan. The U.S. government responded by passing resolutions of war against the two Axis powers, thereby entering World War II.
The declarations came a few days after the Japanese attack and bombing of the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii.
Follow Ken Burns’s World War II timeline to discover important events and figures during this global conflict.
Photo: President Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Germany, Dec. 11, 1941 (Library of Congress).
Historical Diagram: Charing Cross/Embankment Tube Station Cutaway, 1914
Simply stunning cutaway cross-section of the London Tube station now known as Embankment in 1914. This drawing shows the station just after the opening of the new deep tube extension of the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (now part of the Northern Line) from their previous terminus to the north at Charing Cross station. The extension was a single line that headed south from Charing Cross, looped back around underneath the Thames and had a single platform heading northbound here at Embankment.
The diagram shows the C+E&H tube at the bottom right: it looks like a train has just left, heading back northwards to Charing Cross. To the left, the twin tubes of the Bakerloo line can be seen. Above, the shallow cut-and-cover tunnel of the District line runs at right angles to the deeper lines, built into the actual river embankment from which the station received its name. Above them all sits the grand old Charing Cross main line railway station, with The Strand just visible at its far end (a helpful caption, “This is The Strand”, points the way).
More than anything, it’s the detail of this cutaway that I like the most. Busy people enter and exit the station, read newspapers and ride the escalators between levels. A double-decker omnibus and Edwardian car can be seen chugging along the street, and trains belch steam in the station above. Advertisements adorn the walls, and the red carriages of the Tube fairly rattle along the tracks. An early version of the Underground roundel – a red circle with a blue bar across it – can be seen above the station’s building and on the District line platform.
If the naming of the station seems a little confusing, that’s because it was. In 1914, the District line platforms were named Charing Cross (for the main line station almost directly above), while the two separate deep tube lines were both called Embankment. The C+E&H station directly to the north, which was previously just Charing Cross, became Charing Cross (Strand). By 1915, everyone had had enough of this nonsense and all the platforms at this station took on the District line name of Charing Cross, while Charing Cross (Strand) became simply Strand. At the same time, the separate Strand station on the Piccadilly line was renamed as Aldywch to prevent even more confusion.
In June 1973, the newer Northern line Strand station was closed to allow construction of Jubilee line platforms. These platforms were constructed between the Bakerloo line and Northern line platforms together with the long-missing below-ground interchange between those two lines. In anticipation of the new interchange station, Charing Cross (this station) was renamed Charing Cross Embankment. The Jubilee line platforms and the refurbished Northern line platforms opened in May 1979, when the combined station (including Trafalgar Square on the Bakerloo line) was given its current name of Charing Cross; simultaneously, Charing Cross Embankment (this station) reverted to its original name – Embankment.
(Source: Wikimedia Commons)
Roman Empire’s Legion Deployment 125 AD
Born in Miyakonojo, Hyūga province (currently Miyazaki prefecture, Uehara’s father was a samurai of the Satsuma domain. He graduated from the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in 1879 with Akiyama Yoshifuru as one of his classmates. Promoted to lieutenant in September 1882, Uehara was sent to France for studies on modern military techniques from 1881-1885. He was promoted to captain in June 1885, to major in May 1890, to lieutenant colonel in September 1894 and to colonel in October 1897. Promoted to major general in July 1900, Uehara fought in the Russo-Japanese War, as a staff officer in the Japanese Fourth Army commanded by his father-in-law, General Nozu Michitsura. He was promoted to lieutenant general in July 1906 and ennobled as a baron in September of the following year.
In December 1912, Uehara was appointed War Minister in Prime Minister Saionji Kinmochi's second cabinet. Since the civilian government was pursuing a tight fiscal policy, it soon came into conflict with the army, which was demanding an increase in funding for another two infantry divisions. When Uehara resigned as War Minister over this conflict, the remainder cabinet resigned en masse when the Army refused to nominate a successor, precipitating the collapse of Saionji’s government. This event was known as the “Taisho Political Crisis”.
From March–June 1913, Uehara was commander in chief of the IJA 3rd Division. In February 1915, Uehara was promoted to general and became Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, remaining in this post longer than any person before or after (with the exception of a member of the Imperial House). While in this position, he (together with Tanaka Giichi and Ugaki Issei authorized the Siberian Intervention in support of White Russian forces against theBolshevik Red Army in the Russian Civil War.
Uehara died in 1933.
A line of M60 Magachs move towards the the Suez Canal during the Yom Kippur War.
Population density in British India, 1909
A knocked out Egyptian T-55 and Israeli M48 Magach. The Yom Kippur War saw extensive armor battles, and heavy losses on both sides. Half of the IDFs 2,000 tanks were knocked out, although about 600 of them were salvageable and eventually returned to service. The Arab powers employed over twice as many tanks in their attacks, and suffered over 2,000 losses against the superior IDF crews.
Possible Ukrainian partition plan along ethnic lines
Empires in 1936
18th Century Street Map of Manhattan.